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The specialization in the sociology of organizations and institutions provides students with an integrated view of macro- and meso-societal processes. While the study of societal institutions has its roots in the evolutionary sociology of Herbert Spencer and Emile Durkheim, and in the structural-functionalism of Talcott Parsons, it has been re-invigorated by the contributions of such contemporary theorists as Gerhard Lenski, Niklas Luhmann, Anthony Giddens, and Jonathan Turner. At the same time, the study of organizational structure has moved toward theories that acknowledge the constraints imposed on the rationality of organizational behavior by the power, values, and/or cognitive expectations of organizational actors. As political, normative, and cognitive systems, organizations are no longer seen as being independent of institutional processes, and are instead seen as being interpenetrated by them.